Hazrat Usman Ghani R.A was the third khalifa of Islam. Allah had blessed him with enormous wealth.
He under no circumstances vacillated to devote his prosperity and for the services of Islam. When he was not in the Islam, he used to wear out very expensive dresses. But after accepting Islam, he transformed his life style overall and adopt humble and modest way of life. It was the HazratAbyBakar Siddique R.A who brought him in the great religion, Islam.
Usman Ghani R.A belonged to those group of people of Makkah who were able to read and write. He earned huge wealth from his business of clothes. He was very humble and caring person. He always come forward to help and assist the needy. He supported the persons who faced problems. Banuumayah was the name of his tribe whereas the Prophet Muhammad P.B.U.H was from BanuHashim.In the early days, BanuUmayah was the most powerful tribe of Makkah. When Usman accepted Islam, this tribe generated great difficulties for this Kind man. Even Uncle of Usman, Hakam gave him punishment.
HazratUsamnGhani marriedwith the two daughters of Hazrat Muhammads.a.w.w. He was not only a good believer and muslim but he was very kind and ideal husband. Therefore, the Prophet once said he would chose Usman for his daughter if he had another. In the battle of Badar, hazart Usman could not play a role because his wife named HazrtRuqaya R.A was in poor health and she died in that time of Gazwa. But Hazrat Muhammad s.a.w.w gave him assurance that he will be bestowed with same reward as if he battled in Gazwa. Then he was wedded to Ume kulsum, daughter of the Prophet P.B.U.H .Therefore he was called as ZulNurain means man with two lights.
Hazrat Usman Ghanir.a. was the mainindividual to travel for ALLAH to Abisiniya when believers werefacing tough challenges in makkah after he was allowedconsent by Muhammad s.a.w.w. . After two months he came back he was faultilyknowledgeable about the quraishbelievedislam. He again migrated to Median with fellow . Hazratusmanghanir.a. was lead to Makkahfor discussions at agreement of hudebiya. But soon the false news of his killing was declared which shocked believers and they pursuedcommitment with Muhammad s.a.w.w under a tree which is stated in Quran and called Bait e Rizwan.
In the time of his khilafat, as Muhammad s.a.w.w predicted, believers became so prosper that usmanr.a. used to walk with zakat in his hand to find a poor to pay him his share. Thus in his time, devotees became very rich and financially very strong. But there were enemies hidden to murder usmanr.a. who were not happy with his caliphate. It was during his caliphate that followers invaded afriqah and asia and won Afghanistan and took it under the control of muslims. He remained successful in all his invasions and took the area under his control even by fighting with romans.
During his Khilafat, Muslims conquered Africa and Asia. Muslims become so rich and wealthy.Some hypocrite people killed this great man who are against his ruling. Whereas he always tried his best to resolve the differences among Muslims and different groups.Thedignity, piety and kind-heartedness of Usman R.A. cannot be ignored. He was a courageousfighter of Islam who eventually got martyrdom. May ALLAH award him the place in the uppermostparadise and be satisfied with him. Amin
Uthman ibn Affan was a man so loved by Prophet Muhammad, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, that he was called the possessor of two lights. Uthman was married to Prophet Muhammad’s daughter Ruqiayah and when she died, he married Muhammad’s other daughter, Umm Kulthum, thus possessing the two lights.
Uthman ibn Affan was appointed Caliph (leader of the Muslim nation) through a process of consultation and careful deliberation. On his deathbed, Omar ibn Al Khattab appointed a council of six men to choose a new leader. It was a time of confusion and chaos for the Muslims, small disagreements were becoming obstacles. Some people wanted to appoint Ali ibn Abu Talib because he was from Prophet Muhammad’s family, others wanted to appoint Uthman because he was from one of the great tribes of Mecca. Ibn Kathir, the respected Islamic scholar of the 14th century suggests that the leader of the council, Abdu Rahman ibn Awf questioned both men and then chose Uthman.
Abdurrahman asked Ali, “Do you swear to rule by the glorious book of God (Quran) and the Sunnah (traditions) of His messenger?” To which he replied, “I hope to act according to my best knowledge and capacity”. When Abdurrahman asked Uthman the same question, he replied simply, “I do”. It would be too simplistic to suggest that the decision was made solely by the answer to this question but rather it was part of a process of reflection and deliberation. Both men were amongst several who were eminently qualified to lead the Muslim nation. Uthman was a man known to be pious, generous, and modest, perhaps his simple answer reflected his personality. A shy man, who spoke few words but whose heart was filled with love for God and His messenger.
Immediately after being elected, Uthman ibn Affan addressed the people from the minbar previously used by Prophet Muhammad. He looked at the Muslims and praised God, sent blessings upon Prophet Muhammad, and reminded the people that this world was full of deception. He advised the people to shun living luxurious lives and to seek a place in the hereafter, full of happiness and peace.
“And put forward to them the example of the life of this world, it is like water (rain) which We send down from the sky, and the vegetation of the earth mingles with it, and becomes fresh and green. But (later) it becomes dry and broken pieces, which the winds scatter. And God is Able to do everything. Wealth and children are the adornment of the life of this world. But the good righteous deeds (five compulsory prayers, deeds of God’s obedience, good and nice talk, remembrance of God with glorification, praises and thanks, etc.), that last, are better with your Lord for rewards and better in respect of hope.” (Quran 18: 45 - 46)
Uthman was a pious man who loved and trusted God completely, thus his first action as leader was to assure the people that he would guide them according to the way of the Prophet and Caliphs Abu Bakr and Omar ibn Al Khattab. Uthman was turning 70 when he became leader of the Muslims and for many years, he had refrained from the pleasures of this life in order to seek nearness to God. After setting a tone of piety and concern for Muslims that would be the hallmark of his reign, Uthman turned his attention to giving direction to the governors and the Muslim armies.
To the governors Uthman expressed his desire for them to serve the people, and never to exploit them. He sent prominent companions of Prophet Muhammad, as his personal deputies to the provinces to scrutinize the conduct of officials and the condition of the people. Uthman reminded the armies to follow the clear guidelines set down by Omar ibn Al Khattab and asked them never to forget that they were defending the believers. Extensive conquests were made during the reign of Uthman, including parts of Spain, Morocco, and Afghanistan. Uthman was also the first Caliph to organise a navy. He reorganised the administrative divisions of the Muslim Caliphate, expanded, and initiated many public projects. Perhaps Uthman’s most astounding contribution to the Muslims was his compilation of the Quran.
The Uthmani Quran
After the death of Prophet Muhammad and during the time of the Caliphs, hundreds of thousands of non-Arabs converted to Islam. Consequently, the Quran began to be recited and written in various different dialects and scripts. One of Prophet Mohammad’s companions, and Uthman’s friend Hudhaifah, whilst on a journey noticed that there were many different recitations of Quran throughout the Muslim Empire. Hudhaifah suggested to Uthman that there be an official version written in the style used in Medina.
Uthman knew the Quran by heart and had intimate knowledge of the context and circumstances relating to each verse. The Quran had been gathered during the time of Abu Bakr and was in the safekeeping of Prophet Muhammad’s wife Hafsah. Uthman took possession of the originals and ordered some of the most trusted companions to make careful copies. He then ordered all other unofficial copies to be burned or otherwise destroyed. Five official copies were sent to the greatest cities of the Muslim Caliphate. Original copies exist to this day in Tashkent, Uzbekistan and the Topkapi Palace in Istanbul, Turkey.
A Tragic End
The final six years of Uthman’s reign were marked by rebellion. Some of the governors that had been appointed during the reign of Uthman were heavy handed and to some extent unjust. In this way, the seeds of dissension spread and many of the people began to love the luxuries of life that Uthman had warned against. Conspiracies arose and it was difficult for Uthman to discern friend from foe. He was reluctant to shed the blood of any Muslim however rebellious they may be. Uthman preferred to persuade with kindness and generosity for he always remembered the words of Prophet Muhammad. “Once the sword is unsheathed among my followers, it will not be sheathed until the Last Day.”
The rebels called for Uthman to step down and indeed many of the companions advised him to do so. Uthman, now an old man of more than 80 years, heard the words of his beloved prophet ringing in his ears and refused to stand down from his position. “Perhaps God will clothe you with a shirt, Uthman and if the people want you to take it off, do not take it off for them.” Uthman remained true to his covenant but after a long siege, the rebels broke into his house and murdered him. As the assassin’s sword struck, Uthman was reciting the following verse.
“So God will suffice for you against them. And He is the All Hearer and the All Knower.” (Quran 2:137)
Such was the tragic end of one of the most pious, kind and selfless men in Islam.