Essay On Creatures That Live In The Ocean

Bioluminescence In Deep Sea Creatures Essay

Bioluminescence in Deep Sea Creatures

Did you know that ninety percent of deep sea dwellers are able to give off light straight from their bodies? The light emission from a living organism in the ocean is known as bioluminescence. As a human race we need to dig deeper into the study of these creatures in hopes of fully understanding what bioluminescence is, why is it being used, and how can it help us.
Bioluminescence is a mixture of chemicals inside a living thing that glows and generally lives in the twilight zone of the ocean. Bioluminescence consists of, “Two different kinds of light emission, luminescence is when chemical compounds mix together and glow. Incandescence is a filament inside the creature that gets very hot and emits light.” (Wilson, Tracy). Bioluminescence is mostly chemistry and how different chemicals mix together to give off different appearances. Luciferin produces light, while luciferase is a catalyst which often needs a charged ion to activate it. Life in the sea most often use coelenterazine, a type of luciferin. These particular animals live in the deeper parts of the ocean like the twilight zone.

These animals can’t function in the shallows of the ocean, so they retreat to the depths. The twilight zone is 660 to 3030 feet deep which means, “The only light that reaches where these fish are is a blue greenish color which gets absorbed by plant, so most of the light they give off is red” (Haddock). This scientist is describing the world of color or lack of that these special creatures face. The light in this zone is usually red due to the fact that there is not a lot of light the plants absorb the blue and green and animal life then give off a red light. These creatures use this special chemical mix for numerous reasons.

Marine life in these deep parts depend on a bioluminescence and everything it does for them. They can use it to for protection by using the burglar alarm theory, “…smaller fish emit a flash of light. The light attracts larger fish, which are likely to be the smaller fish’s predators” (Wilson, Tracy). In other words, the small fish let the big fish know where prey is and the original predator is eaten while it escapes. These fish have ingenuous methods of avoiding predators and surviving in the abyss. Living in such depths means that it can be difficult for animals to find food.

Although 90% of the ocean dwellers have luminescent abilities they aren’t the only ones who depend on it. One species that needs it, “sperm whales, the deepest divers of all the whales need bioluminescence to help them locate their food source.”(Knowlton, Nancy) Sperm whales are a perfect example of how other animals have adapted and made adjustments to their own lives to reap the advantages of bioluminescence. Thousands of animal’s lives are affected by bioluminescence, an important role in every animal that lives in the deep-sea luminescence.

Fish have different methods of attracting food...

Loading: Checking Spelling


Read more

The Mysterious Animal Known as the Squid

1793 words - 7 pages The mysterious animal known as the squid has inspired ballads, art, fear, awe, and long-told stories for centuries. The mysterious Kraken has encouraged whispered stories after lights-out. Many assume that the only species of squid is the giant squid, reaching over 40 feet in officially recorded cases. However, there are over 300 documented species of squid, ranging in all of sizes. The scientific classification of one species, the fire squid, is...

Asphyxiation Essay

1935 words - 8 pages Asphyxiation The Vancouver Sun later confirmed the events of that night: two hikers found two dead bodies at Camper Creek on the West Coast Trail on the sixth of May 1998. The article didn’t say who the hikers were, nor did it say who the dead Native Americans were, for what would the world do with those four meaningless names? None of the four was famous, beautiful, or rich: just normal people drawn together on one particular night....

Hydrothermal Vents Imagine being on the ocean floor. You are ...

560 words - 2 pages Hydrothermal VentsImagine being on the ocean floor. You are in total darkness and in unbearable pressure. You would think that in this freezing environment there is no life, but there is. Eight years ago something was discovered that no one could even imagine. It was a source of life called a hydrothermal vent. A hydrothermal vent is a hot spring found at...

Museum Exhibition Proposal With Punch

3243 words - 13 pages Exhibit Overview and Rationale: The “The Myth And The Reality” exhibition is intended for the visitors who are interested in previous historical, religious, human behaviors, mythological material, nature of animals, and the world we live in. Mythical creatures are created by people’s imaginations, hopes, fears, and most passionate dreams. The exhibition I am designing uses a method of comparison, comparing real animals to mythical creatures....

The Mariana Trench- Science Report

1297 words - 5 pages An icy depth to below 0 degree temperatures, the Mariana trench is the deepest known trench to mankind. The trench is home to thousands of deep sea creatures that mingle down below sea level at amazing pressures. The deep sea is home to the largest ecosystem. Millions of inhabitants crowd at the bottom of the earth's ocean floor to live a quite life bothering no...

Mysterious Creatures: Believe it or Not

2324 words - 9 pages There are numerous amounts of myths and folktales, which not only frighten people but leave them in wonder. Is it best to believe or not to believe?The thought of the unknown has convinced some that the myth is real or exists. Movies and other media tools play a factor in convincing individuals into believing.Creatures are portrayed as dangerous and hideous beasts so that is what the social world believes. For others that is not enough, seeing...

Depletion of the Sea Cucumber Population in the Galapagos Islands

1638 words - 7 pages Depletion of the Sea Cucumber Population in the Galapagos IslandsElizabeth FoxIntroductionOne thousand kilometers off the Ecuadorian coastline lies the Galapagos Marine Reserve, the home to one of the world's most unique ecosystems. The Galapagos Marine Reserve covers an area...

"The Hungry Ocean": A look at the book and Oceanography.

912 words - 4 pages Linda Greenlaw's "The Hungry Ocean" revealed to me a lifestyle in which I had only...

This essay is basically just research on Kenya...Different activities, what people do there, eat, etc.

562 words - 2 pages White sand beaches, fringed with palms, casuarinas, oleanders, and brilliant bougainvillea, washed by the incredible blue waters of the Indian Ocean. Kenya's coral reef thrives with a variety of life, and because of its immense size, you can tell many creatures lived there. First, I will write about sea turtles, and how they survived in the

Sea Monkeys

827 words - 3 pages Sea monkeysThey're small, they're wacky, and they're going to take over the world! Well not really. But they are sea monkeys.Ok most of you are probably wondering, "what the heck are sea monkeys"! And no they are not actual monkeys that live in the ocean. Sea monkeys are a sort of brine shrimp genetically altered to live longer. And they...

Deep Blue Sea: Don't Waste Your Time

1126 words - 5 pages Deep Blue Sea is a pathetic attempt at a heart racing, action packed, adrenaline pumping thriller. The only thrilling moment of this multi million dollar catastrophe was the laughable special effects and far fetched plot. The film, set in a research facility at sea, is about a group of scientists developing a cure for...

Marine life, or sea life or ocean life, is the plants, animals and other organisms that live in the salt water of the sea or ocean, or the brackish water of coastal estuaries. At a fundamental level, marine life helps determine the very nature of our planet. Marine organisms produce much of the oxygen we breathe. Shorelines are in part shaped and protected by marine life, and some marine organisms even help create new land.

Most life forms evolved initially in marine habitats. Oceans provide about 99 percent of the living space on the planet.[1] The earliest vertebrates appeared in the form of fish, which live exclusively in water. Some of these evolved into amphibians which spend portions of their lives in water and portions on land. Other fish evolved into land mammals and subsequently returned to the ocean as seals, dolphins or whales. Plant forms such as kelp and algae grow in the water and are the basis for some underwater ecosystems. Plankton, and particularly phytoplankton, are key primary producers forming the general foundation of the ocean food chain.

Marine vertebrates must obtain oxygen to survive, and they do so in various ways. Fish have gills instead of lungs, although some species of fish, such as the lungfish, have both. Marine mammals, such as dolphins, whales, otters, and seals need to surface periodically to breathe air. Some amphibians are able to absorb oxygen through their skin. Invertebrates exhibit a wide range of modifications to survive in poorly oxygenated waters including breathing tubes (see insect and mollusc siphons) and gills (Carcinus). However, as invertebrate life evolved in an aquatic habitat most have little or no specialisation for respiration in water.

Altogether there are 230,000 documented marine species, including over 16,000 species of fish, and it has been estimated that nearly two million marine species are yet to be documented.[2] Marine species range in size from the microscopic, including plankton and phytoplankton which can be as small as 0.02 micrometres, to huge cetaceans (whales, dolphins and porpoises) which in the case of the blue whale reach up to 33 metres (109 feet) in length, being the largest known animal.[3][4]


Main article: Hydrosphere

There is no life without water, which has been characterised as the "solvent of life".[5] The Nobel prize winner Albert Szent-Györgyi referred to water as the mater und matrix, the mother and womb of life.[6]

The abundance of water on earth's surface is a unique feature that distinguishes earth from other planets in the Solar System. Earth's hydrosphere consists chiefly of the oceans, but technically includes all water surfaces in the world, including inland seas, lakes, rivers, and underground waters down to a depth of 2,000 m. The deepest underwater location is Challenger Deep of the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean with a depth of 10,911.4 m.[note 1][7]

The mass of the oceans is approximately 1.35×1018 metric tons, or about 1/4400 of Earth's total mass. The oceans cover an area of 7014361800000000000♠3.618×108 km2 with a mean depth of 7003368200000000000♠3682 m, resulting in an estimated volume of 7018133200000000000♠1.332×109 km3.[8] If all of Earth's crustal surface was at the same elevation as a smooth sphere, the depth of the resulting world ocean would be 2.7 to 2.8 km.[9][10]

About 97.5% of the water is saline; the remaining 2.5% is fresh water. Most fresh water, about 68.7%, is present as ice in ice caps and glaciers.[11] The average salinity of Earth's oceans is about 35 grams of salt per kilogram of sea water (3.5% salt).[12] Most of this salt was released from volcanic activity or extracted from cool igneous rocks.[13] The oceans are also a reservoir of dissolved atmospheric gases, which are essential for the survival of many aquatic life forms.[14] Sea water has an important influence on the world's climate, with the oceans acting as a large heat reservoir.[15] Shifts in the oceanic temperature distribution can cause significant weather shifts, such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation.[16]


Further information: Evolutionary history of life and Timeline of evolutionary history of life

The Earth is about 4.54 billion years old.[17][18][19] The earliest undisputed evidence of life on Earth dates from at least 3.5 billion years ago,[20][21] during the Eoarchean Era after a geological crust started to solidify following the earlier molten Hadean Eon. Microbial matfossils have been found in 3.48 billion-year-old sandstone in Western Australia.[22][23][24] Other early physical evidence of a biogenic substance is graphite in 3.7 billion-year-old metasedimentary rocks discovered in Western Greenland[25] as well as "remains of biotic life" found in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia.[26][27] According to one of the researchers, "If life arose relatively quickly on Earth … then it could be common in the universe."[26]

All organisms on Earth are descended from a common ancestor or ancestral gene pool.[28][29] Highly energetic chemistry is thought to have produced a self-replicating molecule around 4 billion years ago, and half a billion years later the last common ancestor of all life existed.[30] The current scientific consensus is that the complex biochemistry that makes up life came from simpler chemical reactions.[31] The beginning of life may have included self-replicating molecules such as RNA[32] and the assembly of simple cells.[33]

Current species are a stage in the process of evolution, with their diversity the product of a long series of speciation and extinction events.[34] The common descent of organisms was first deduced from four simple facts about organisms: First, they have geographic distributions that cannot be explained by local adaptation. Second, the diversity of life is not a set of completely unique organisms, but organisms that share morphological similarities. Third, vestigial traits with no clear purpose resemble functional ancestral traits and finally, that organisms can be classified using these similarities into a hierarchy of nested groups—similar to a family tree.[35] However, modern research has suggested that, due to horizontal gene transfer, this "tree of life" may be more complicated than a simple branching tree since some genes have spread independently between distantly related species.[36][37]

Past species have also left records of their evolutionary history. Fossils, along with the comparative anatomy of present-day organisms, constitute the morphological, or anatomical, record.[38] By comparing the anatomies of both modern and extinct species, paleontologists can infer the lineages of those species. However, this approach is most successful for organisms that had hard body parts, such as shells, bones or teeth. Further, as prokaryotes such as bacteria and archaea share a limited set of common morphologies, their fossils do not provide information on their ancestry.

More recently, evidence for common descent has come from the study of biochemical similarities between organisms. For example, all living cells use the same basic set of nucleotides and amino acids.[40] The development of molecular genetics has revealed the record of evolution left in organisms' genomes: dating when species diverged through the molecular clock produced by mutations.[41] For example, these DNA sequence comparisons have revealed that humans and chimpanzees share 98% of their genomes and analysing the few areas where they differ helps shed light on when the common ancestor of these species existed.[42]

Prokaryotes inhabited the Earth from approximately 3–4 billion years ago.[43][44] No obvious changes in morphology or cellular organisation occurred in these organisms over the next few billion years.[45] The eukaryotic cells emerged between 1.6–2.7 billion years ago. The next major change in cell structure came when bacteria were engulfed by eukaryotic cells, in a cooperative association called endosymbiosis.[46][47] The engulfed bacteria and the host cell then underwent coevolution, with the bacteria evolving into either mitochondria or hydrogenosomes.[48] Another engulfment of cyanobacterial-like organisms led to the formation of chloroplasts in algae and plants.[49]

The history of life was that of the unicellular eukaryotes, prokaryotes and archaea until about 610 million years ago when multicellular organisms began to appear in the oceans in the Ediacaran period.[43][50] The evolution of multicellularity occurred in multiple independent events, in organisms as diverse as sponges, brown algae, cyanobacteria, slime moulds and myxobacteria.[51] In January 2016, scientists reported that, about 800 million years ago, a minor genetic change in a single molecule called GK-PID may have allowed organisms to go from a single cell organism to one of many cells.[52]

Soon after the emergence of these first multicellular organisms, a remarkable amount of biological diversity appeared over approximately 10 million years, in an event called the Cambrian explosion. Here, the majority of types of modern animals appeared in the fossil record, as well as unique lineages that subsequently became extinct.[53] Various triggers for the Cambrian explosion have been proposed, including the accumulation of oxygen in the atmosphere from photosynthesis.[54]

About 500 million years ago, plants and fungi started colonising the land. Evidence for the appearance of the first land plants occurs in the Ordovician, around 450 million years ago, in the form of fossil spores.[55] Land plants began to diversify in the Late Silurian, from around 430 million years ago.[56] The colonisation of the land by plants was soon followed by arthropods and other animals.[57]Insects were particularly successful and even today make up the majority of animal species.[58]Amphibians first appeared around 364 million years ago, followed by early amniotes and birds around 155 million years ago (both from "reptile"-like lineages), mammals around 129 million years ago, homininae around 10 million years ago and modern humans around 250,000 years ago.[59][60][61] However, despite the evolution of these large animals, smaller organisms similar to the types that evolved early in this process continue to be highly successful and dominate the Earth, with the majority of both biomass and species being prokaryotes.[62]

Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million,[63] of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described.[64]

Marine microorganisms[edit]

Main article: Marine microorganism

See also: Evolution of cells

Microorganisms constitute more than 90% of the marine biomass. A microorganism (or microbe) is a microscopiclivingorganism, which may be single-celled[65] or multicellular. Microorganisms are very diverse and include all bacteria, archaea and most protozoa. This group also contains some species of fungi, algae, and certain microscopic animals, such as rotifers.

Many macroscopic animals and plants have microscopic juvenile stages. Some microbiologists also classify viruses (and viroids) as microorganisms, but others consider these as nonliving.[66][67] In July 2016, scientists reported identifying a set of 355 genes from the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) of all life, including microorganisms, living on Earth.[68]

Microorganisms are crucial to nutrient recycling in ecosystems as they act as decomposers. A small proportion of microorganisms are pathogenic, causing disease and even death in plants and animals.[69] As inhabitants of the largest environment on Earth, microbial marine systems drive changes in every global system. Microbes are responsible for virtually all the photosynthesis that occurs in the ocean, as well as the cycling of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and other nutrients and trace elements.[70]

Microscopic life undersea is incredibly diverse and still poorly understood. For example, the role of viruses in marine ecosystems is barely being explored even in the beginning of the 21st century.[71]

A teaspoon of seawater contains about one million viruses.[72] Most of these are bacteriophages, which are harmless to plants and animals, and are in fact essential to the regulation of saltwater and freshwater ecosystems.[73] They infect and destroy bacteria in aquatic microbial communities, and are the most important mechanism of recycling carbon in the marine environment. The organic molecules released from the dead bacterial cells stimulate fresh bacterial and algal growth.[74] Viral activity may also contribute to the biological pump, the process whereby carbon is sequestered in the deep ocean.[75]

Marine bacteriophages are viruses that live as obligateparasitic agents in marinebacteria such as cyanobacteria.[76] Their existence was discovered through electron microscopy and epifluorescence microscopy of ecological water samples, and later through metagenomic sampling of uncultured viral samples.[76][77] The tailed bacteriophages appear to dominate marine ecosystems in number and diversity of organisms.[76] However, viruses belonging to families Corticoviridae,[78]Inoviridae[79] and Microviridae[80] are also known to infect diverse marine bacteria. Metagenomic evidence suggests that microviruses (icosahedral ssDNA phages) are particularly prevalent in marine habitats.[80]

Bacteriophages, viruses that are parasitic on bacteria, were first discovered in the early twentieth century. Scientists today consider that their importance in ecosystems, particularly marine ecosystems, has been underestimated, leading to these infectious agents being poorly investigated and their numbers and species biodiversity being greatly under reported.[81]

Microscopic organisms live in every part of the biosphere. The mass of prokaryote microorganisms — which includes bacteria and archaea, but not the nucleated eukaryote microorganisms — may be as much as 0.8 trillion tons of carbon (of the total biosphere mass, estimated at between 1 and 4 trillion tons).[82]Barophilic marine microbes have been found at more than a depth of 10,000 m (33,000 ft; 6.2 mi) in the Mariana Trench, the deepest spot in the Earth's oceans.[83] In fact, single-celled life forms have been found in the deepest part of the Mariana Trench, by the Challenger Deep, at depths of 11,034 m (36,201 ft; 6.856 mi).[84][85][86] Other researchers reported related studies that microorganisms thrive inside rocks up to 580 m (1,900 ft; 0.36 mi) below the sea floor under 2,590 m (8,500 ft; 1.61 mi) of ocean off the coast of the northwestern United States,[85][87] as well as 2,400 m (7,900 ft; 1.5 mi) beneath the seabed off Japan.[88] The greatest known temperature at which microbial life can exist is 122 °C (252 °F) (Methanopyrus kandleri).[89] On 20 August 2014, scientists confirmed the existence of microorganisms living 800 m (2,600 ft; 0.50 mi) below the ice of Antarctica.[90][91] According to one researcher, "You can find microbes everywhere — they're extremely adaptable to conditions, and survive wherever they are."[85]

Marine viruses[edit]

See also: Marine bacteriophage and Viral evolution

A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates only inside the living cells of other organisms. Viruses can infect all types of life forms, from animals and plants to microorganisms, including bacteria and archaea.[92]

When not inside an infected cell or in the process of infecting a cell, viruses exist in the form of independent particles. These viral particles, also known as virions, consist of two or three parts: (i) the genetic material made from either DNA or RNA, long molecules that carry genetic information; (ii) a protein coat, called the capsid, which surrounds and protects the genetic material; and in some cases (iii) an envelope of lipids that surrounds the protein coat when they are outside a cell. The shapes of these virus particles range from simple helical and icosahedral forms for some virus species to more complex structures for others. Most virus species have virions that are too small to be seen with an optical microscope. The average virion is about one one-hundredth the size of the average bacterium.

The origins of viruses in the evolutionary history of life are unclear: some may have evolved from plasmids—pieces of DNA that can move between cells—while others may have evolved from bacteria. In evolution, viruses are an important means of horizontal gene transfer, which increases genetic diversity.[93] Viruses are considered by some to be a life form, because they carry genetic material, reproduce, and evolve through natural selection. However they lack key characteristics (such as cell structure) that are generally considered necessary to count as life. Because they possess some but not all such qualities, viruses have been described as "organisms at the edge of life"[94] and as replicators.[95]

Viruses are found wherever there is life and have probably existed since living cells first evolved.[96] The origin of viruses is unclear because they do not form fossils, so molecular techniques have been used to compare the DNA or RNA of viruses and are a useful means of investigating how they arose.[97]

Viruses are now recognised as ancient and as having origins that pre-date the divergence of life into the three domains.[98]

Opinions differ on whether viruses are a form of life, or organic structures that interact with living organisms.[99] They have been described as "organisms at the edge of life",[94] since they resemble organisms in that they possess genes, evolve by natural selection,[100] and reproduce by creating multiple copies of themselves through self-assembly. Although they have genes, they do not have a cellular structure, which is often seen as the basic unit of life. Viruses do not have their own metabolism, and require a host cell to make new products. They therefore cannot naturally reproduce outside a host cell.[101]

Bacterial viruses, called bacteriophages, are a common and diverse group of viruses and are the most abundant form of biological entity in aquatic environments – there are up to ten times more of these viruses in the oceans than there are bacteria,[102] reaching levels of 250,000,000 bacteriophages per millilitre of seawater.[103]

There are also archaean viruses which replicate within archaea: these are double-stranded DNA viruses with unusual and sometimes unique shapes.[104][105] These viruses have been studied in most detail in the thermophilic archaea, particularly the orders Sulfolobales and Thermoproteales.[106]

A teaspoon of seawater contains about one million viruses.[72] Most of these are bacteriophages, which are harmless to plants and animals, and are in fact essential to the regulation of saltwater and freshwater ecosystems.[73] They infect and destroy bacteria in aquatic microbial communities, and are the most important mechanism of recycling carbon in the marine environment. The organic molecules released from the dead bacterial cells stimulate fresh bacterial and algal growth.[74] Viral activity may also contribute to the biological pump, the process whereby carbon is sequestered in the deep ocean.[75]

Microorganisms constitute more than 90% of the biomass in the sea. It is estimated that viruses kill approximately 20% of this biomass each day and that there are 15 times as many viruses in the oceans as there are bacteria and archaea. Viruses are the main agents responsible for the rapid destruction of harmful algal blooms,[107] which often kill other marine life.[108] The number of viruses in the oceans decreases further offshore and deeper into the water, where there are fewer host organisms.[75]

Viruses are an important natural means of transferring genes between different species, which increases genetic diversity and drives evolution.[93] It is thought that viruses played a central role in the early evolution, before the diversification of bacteria, archaea and eukaryotes, at the time of the last universal common ancestor of life on Earth.[109] Viruses are still one of the largest reservoirs of unexplored genetic diversity on Earth.[75]

Marine bacteria[edit]

See also: Bacterioplankton

Bacteria constitute a large domain of prokaryoticmicroorganisms. Typically a few micrometres in length, bacteria have a number of shapes, ranging from spheres to rods and spirals. Bacteria were among the first life forms to appear on Earth, and are present in most of its habitats. Bacteria inhabit soil, water, acidic hot springs, radioactive waste,[110] and the deep portions of Earth's crust. Bacteria also live in symbiotic and parasitic relationships with plants and animals.

Once regarded as plants constituting the class Schizomycetes, bacteria are now classified as prokaryotes. Unlike cells of animals and other eukaryotes, bacterial cells do not contain a nucleus and rarely harbour membrane-boundorganelles. Although the term bacteria traditionally included all prokaryotes, the scientific classification changed after the discovery in the 1990s that prokaryotes consist of two very different groups of organisms that evolved from an ancient common ancestor. These evolutionary domains are called Bacteria and Archaea.[111]

The ancestors of modern bacteria were unicellular microorganisms that were the first forms of life to appear on Earth, about 4 billion years ago. For about 3 billion years, most organisms were microscopic, and bacteria and archaea were the dominant forms of life.[112][113] Although bacterial fossils exist, such as stromatolites, their lack of distinctive morphology prevents them from being used to examine the history of bacterial evolution, or to date the time of origin of a particular bacterial species. However, gene sequences can be used to reconstruct the bacterial phylogeny, and these studies indicate that bacteria diverged first from the archaeal/eukaryotic lineage.[114] Bacteria were also involved in the second great evolutionary divergence, that of the archaea and eukaryotes. Here, eukaryotes resulted from the entering of ancient bacteria into endosymbiotic

Killer whales (orca) are marine apex predators. They hunt practically anything, including tuna, smaller sharks and seals. However, the oceans are alive with less obvious, but equally important forms of marine life, such as bacteria.
Elevation histogram of Earth's surface
Phylogenetic and symbiogenetic tree of living organisms, showing the origins of eukaryotes and prokaryotes

microbial mats

Stromatolites are formed from microbial mats as microbes slowly move upwards to avoid being smothered by sediment.

Transmission electron micrograph of multiple bacteriophages attached to a bacterial cell wall

0 thoughts on “Essay On Creatures That Live In The Ocean”


Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *