Water And Wastewater Management Essay Free

Waste water

Wastewater refers to the spent water that is discharged by sources such as domestic (homes), commercial (shopping malls), industrial (factories), infiltration and inflow (pipes) and stormwater (excessive rainfall/snow melts). It consists of 99% of water and 1% waste. Depending on the sources, the wastes may include organic matter (human faeces), detergents, heavy metals, solid matter, microorganisms and floating debris among others. Sewer systems involving drains, pipes, and pumps then carry the wastewater to a treatment facility.
Wastewater treatment plants are very important. Their role is to remove as much as possible the amount of pollutants and solids from the wastewater, restore its pH and disinfect it before discharging in water bodies such as rivers and seas. This process is carried out within technical and financial feasibility. Therefore, the treatment of wastewater is primordial; otherwise, the polluted water will infect fresh water bodies, disrupting their ecological balance and endangering the flore and fauna.
Furthermore, processes taking place in wastewater treatment plants pertain to physical, chemical and biological methods. The latter involve the use of harmful substances which can cause damage to the Health and Safety of the workers. The existence of hazardous substances at work does not only affect the workers' health; depending on the effect of the illness, it may significantly reduces their capacity to respond to external situmili thereby preventing them to carry out their duty at an optimum level .As such, this can lead to industrial accidents (Chatziioannou, 2012).
As a matter of fact, the risk factors are:
' Physical
This involves risks involving the layout and infrastructure of the wastewater treatment plant such as confined spaces, faulty electrical equipment, slippery surfaces, collapse of guard rails.
' Chemical
It pertains to the use of chemicals and emission of harmful gases such as hydrogen sulphide, ammonia along with the use of chlorine for the treatment of the wastewater.
' Biological
This factor includes microorganisms which are present in sewage to which the workers are exposed to them at the wastewater treatment plant.
Moreover, other than the workers, the operation of a wastewater treatment plant also has an impact on:
' Health and Safety of the residential areas nearby the residential areas nearby in terms of aesthetics, odour, noise, and flies/pests.
' Environment in terms of discharge of untreated chemicals resulting in water pollution and aerial dispersion of wastewater resulting in air pollution

3 Health and safety risks & Assessment of their Effects As introduced in section 1, the risks involved in the treatment of waste water are can be subdivided into 3 broad categories as shown below:
Basically, the emergence of risks can be attributed to the chemicals used in the treatment process and to the design of the plant itself. Moreover, the sewage material constitute of a significant amount of microbes, which can potentially have negative health impacts on the workers being exposed to sewage. Hence, this further leads to more risks.
3.1 Factors posing health and safety risks
3.1.1 Physical risks and factors
The probability of encountering a physical hazard when working at a waste water treatment is very high. Unless precautionary measures and extreme care are taken, the consequence of being confronted with such risks can be irremediable, long lasting and disastrous as well. The magnitude of the harm caused when exposed to a hazard varies significantly depending upon the design of the plant.
The factors posing physical risks pertaining to Health and Safety are described as follows:
1. Compact spaces
The majority of the treatment plants are crammed with equipment and machinery. Consequently, there is inadequate working space. For instance, the sedimentation tanks, underground and below grade vaults have restricted access. All of these constitute a major hazard as trips and falls are very likely to occur. (Stellman 2011)
Furthermore, the size of openings in manholes is usually not adequate. Hence, this can be an obstacle to egress in the event of an emergency.
The figure below depicts a manhole with limited space for entry and egress.
Figure 3-1 Manhole with cover removed
2. Confined spaces
There is insufficient ventilation in the working areas at the treatment plant as these are confined. Consequently, the workers are constantly being exposed to an environment with low oxygen concentration.
Moreover, there is the risk of exposure to high levels of toxic gases such as hydrogen sulphide, methane gas and ammonia. This can potentially lead to serious illness and death as well.
3. Mishandling of equipment
Severe injuries may arise when the mixing equipment, sludge rakes and pumps (amongst other mechanical devices) are not handled correctly and with care. Unintended energizing of machinery may also be a common occurrence and if this happens during servicing, the worker can be seriously wounded or may even be killed.
4. Faulty electrical equipment
There is an ever present risk of an electric shock occurring at the treatment plant and this can be caused by contact with faulty electrical equipment and cables. Also, Working with electrical equipment in a wet condition can be a hazard.
5. Slippery surfaces
It is commonplace to find water puddles at the treatment plant. Hence, the probability of slipping and falling on the floor is very high.
6. Collapse of guard rails
The guard rail, if not in proper repair, may collapse in case the worker inadvertently leans over it. As such, there is the risk of drowning in the treatment tanks.
7. Handling heavy loads
In wastewater treatment plant there is the use of heavy load which may cause injury.
8. Risk of fall
' There is a risk of falling if work is being done at a considerable height over an unguarded tank.
' There may be accidental fall when grates are lifted over waterways and tanks for access.
9. Machineries with moving parts
Pumps and valves are involved for moving water. There are also many moving parts like screens and conveyors which remove debris and move sludge. This equipment may cause caught/ crush hazard if accidentally a hand, arm or foot is placed near the moving part. (Statefundca, n.d)

3.1.2 Microbial risks and factors
During the treatment of waste water, workers are exposed to disease causing microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria and viruses. This constitutes a major concern in the context of occupational health and safety. There are in fact different means by which the workers could be affected by the microorganisms and these are described as follows: 1. Skin contact The microorganisms can gain entry to the human body by contact with the skin. Cuts and abrasions will generally make the worker more vulnerable to the disease causing organisms. As a result, the worker may suffer from illnesses such as infection of the skin and eyes amongst others.
2. Inhalation Inhalation constitutes an easy means for the microorganisms to gain entry to the human body. These inhaled microorganisms are responsible for causing respiratory and gastrointestinal diseases in the workers (Bardos, Crook and Lacey 1988).
3. Hand to mouth contact
Improper washing of the hands or unwashed hands can lead to the worker being contaminated with the disease causing organism, by hand to mouth contact.
3.1.3 Chemical risks and factors
Various chemical hazards arise during each and every processes occurring at a treatment plant. The chemical encounters can have deleterious effects on the health of the workers. It is hence essential that a risk assessment of these hazards is made in order to deter any unpleasant incidents and to protect the health of the staffs. As such, the main factors that are responsible for the exposure of the workers to chemical risks are explained as follows:
1. Decay of organic material
Toxic gases are released into the atmosphere when the organic material contained in the waste water decomposes. The gases evolved include hydrogen sulphide, methane and ammonia gas. Hydrogen sulphide is lethal to the human body and when present in low concentrations it may cause headaches and conjunctivitis (Smith 1986). Methane which is also released during the decomposition of sewage is explosive (Stellman 2011) and can also cause asphyxia.
2. Use of gaseous chlorine
Gaseous chlorine is used to disinfect tertiary effluent, so as to attain more or less same pathogen concentration as that found in natural aquatic environment. (WHO n.y) As such, the workers may suffer from adult respiratory distress syndrome by inhaling the gaseous chlorine during the disinfection process. (Stellman 2011)
4 Prevention and Mitigation measures
4.1 Measures pertaining to physical risks
' Heavy boots should be used to minimize injury when handling heavy loads.
' The load should be kept as close to the body for as long as possible while lifting. The heaviest side should be near the body as this will prevent overturning possibilities.
' A stable position should be adopted when lifting. The feet should be apart with one leg slightly forward so as to maintain balance.
' The load should be held with a good grip in order to avoid slipping of the load.
' As far as possible, the load should be kept not lower than the knee height (Bansoodeb 2012).
' There should therefore be a good housekeeping practice in the wastewater treatment plant. The minimum amount of water puddles should be present on the floor. Water should be properly and constantly swept up.
' Areas where there will always be water puddles should be marked properly.
' Leaks should be fixed to prevent excessive accumulation of water on the floor.
' Flooring surfaces that provide traction should be used.
' Walking over spills should be avoided and appropriate footwear with non-slip sole should be worn by workers.
' Areas where there is the risk of water engulfment as a result of heavy rain and flooding should be surveyed.
' Proper confined space procedures should be used.
' In addition, safety of the workers can be ensured if they monitor themselves in such a way that they take all necessary precautions and abide by the rules and regulations of the wastewater treatment plant.
' Guard rails should be placed around all open water sources. Rescue equipment such as floats and hooks should be kept available near all water tanks.
' A fall protection gear should be worn and a co-worker may be present nearby for monitoring in case of mishap.
' When grates are lifted over waterways and tanks for access, the area should be cordoned off. Also, hazard warning signs should be placed.
' All moving parts of the equipment should be guarded. Warning signs should be placed near these parts.
' Since work is being carried out in a wet environment, precautions should be taken when electrical equipment is being used. Electrical cables should be checked at all times (Statefundca n.d).
4.2 Measures pertaining to microbial risks
' Workers are best protected from exposures to disease by engineering controls and work practices. However, then engineering controls are not possible, personal protective equipment should be used.
' A good hygiene should be practiced. Hands should be washed well with clean water and soap after work and before eating or smoking.
' Parts of your face should not be touched with the hands while working unless they have been washed.
' Waterproof gloves should be worn when pumps or screens are being cleaned and wastewater, sludge or grit is being handled.
' Workers should not leave the workplace with the same clothes worn while working. Clothes should be changed or decontaminated.
' Vaccination should be done to prevent any unwanted situations (Elcosh n.d).
4.3 Measures pertaining to chemical risks
' Areas where there is the risk for explosion from flammable gases should be surveyed.
' Personal protective equipment (PFE) that gives the maximum protection against toxic gases should be used. Examples of PFE can be breathing mask or oxygen cylinder.
' Ventilation should be allowed in manholes for a while prior to entering it. The reason is to remove or at least lessen the amount of toxic gases present in the confined space. Also, the manhole should be cleaned by flushing it with water before entering.

' A worker should never be entering a manhole alone. Another worker should always be present for assistance in case of mishaps.
' When working in manholes near industrial zones or hospitals, additional precautions should be taken. It should be ensured whether hot water or toxic substances goes into the manhole and if this is the case, the entering of these substances should be stopped at that particular time (Bansoodeb 2012).
5 Legislative Framework
Occupational Safety and Heatlh Act, 2005(OSHA) caters for health and safety of employees in Mauritius and its main aim is to prevent workers from having any serious injury or health on their workplace or due to the location of their workplace.
The law ensures that employees are being provided with safe working conditions in order to prevent workers from being injured or killed at work.
It is the Occupational Safety and Health administration that sets and enforces the health and safety standards. (Online, OSHA)
5.1 Occupational Safety and Health Act 2005 (MAURITIUS)
5.1.1 Part one: Preliminary
The part one of the Act relates mainly to the application of the Act and the Standards and classification. Application of Act
The act is applicable to the government workers, people who are bound by a contract of employment to their employers, self-employed people, and freelancer workers.
Unfortunately a condition in the act allows a Minister to bypass the act where the latter seems to find it necessary and in the interest of public security, public safety or public interest. Standards and classification
This part of the act also unfortunately gives choice to the Minister whether the latter wants to provide any standard, method of classification or classification system which could have been used as a general guide.
The employer shall provide a standard, method of classification or classification system with which the Court would be satisfied or else he would be liable to legal actions.
5.1.2 Part two: Duties and Responsibilities
The general duties of employers, especial duties of employers, especial duty of employers making use of machinery and the preventions concerning young persons are detailed in this section of the act. This section also provide details of the duties of Health and Safety officers and also the setting up, functioning and meeting of Health and Safety committees. The other parts of the Act is similar to the OSHA of United States as briefed in section one and the only major difference is that the inspector is the Health and Safety Officer and that instead of Occupational Safety and Health administration, in Mauritius we have Occupational Safety and Health committee.
5.2 Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970 (United States) Workers have to be satisfied with working conditions that ensures their safety as well as welfare and hence OSHA provides workers with the right to: 1. Request for inspection for their site of work; 2. To ask for information for possible potential hazards that may occur on their site of work and also adequate training methods to prevent harm, 3. OSHA standards applicable to the site of work. 4. To ask information for any incidence that resulted in injuries of workers; The OSH act is applicable to all government workers and private sector workers but is not applicable to people who are self-employed and workplace Hazards controlled by other agency (for example, the Coast Guard). (Online, OSHA)
5.2.1 OSHA standards The standards are rules to prevent employees from getting injured by using systematical methods that have proven their worth. In our treatment plants, workers are exposed to hazardous chemicals (chemical treatment) as well as the loud noise of the pumping system during their working time and standards enables to limit both the time a worker is exposed to hazardous chemical and also the concentration of the chemical the latter is exposed to. The standard also ensures that the injuries occurring at the site of work are carefully put in the
records and that there is monitoring of the cases that have cropped up due to the hazards by the employers
5.2.2 Inspection of workplace Upon a complaint is filed, and whereby OSHA is asked to inspect a workplace, an inspection needs to be carried out as soon as possible as there may be risk of injuries and the life of the workers may be at risk. On arrival of an OSHA inspector, workers or their representatives are allowed to engage in conversation with the inspector, follow the inspector while the inspection of the site is being carried out and also workers are allowed to be present in meetings between the inspector and employer whether it is before or after the inspection. After the inspection, if inspector has found proof of violation of the OSHA standards, fines or even citations may be issued to the employer from OSHA. Depending on the seriousness of the problem or potential hazard that may be caused, workers have the right to ask for the problem to be solved as soon as possible instead of waiting for the initial deadline which otherwise would depend on the willingness of the employer to fix the problem. The person filing the complaint has the right to get a copy of the results following the inspection by an inspector of OSHA of the site of work. (Online, OSHA)
5.2.3 Employer responsibilities The main responsibility of the employer is to offer a safe working condition to the employee and is in adequacy to the OSHA standards. Instead of only relying on equipments such as gloves,masks and other type of personal protective equipment(PPE) , OSHA encourages to adopt different improved working conditons that would have reduced the risks of already occurred hazards to occur again. In our case of wastewater treatment plant, making use of safer chemicals and enclosing processes to trap harmful fumes may be ways of reducing the risks of the worker being subject to health problems due to his working conditions.
Employers have the responsibility to: 1. Provide information for possible potential hazards that may occur on their site of work via labels, alarms, chemical information sheets and also provide adequate training methods to prevent harm 2. Have records for any incidence that resulted in injuries of workers 3. Carry out tests on the site of workers, such as air sampling required by some OSHA standards. 4. Provide a notice board, poster or any other means to post OSHA citations and other information related possible on site injuries. 5. Inform OSHA within 8 hours of a workplace incident in which more than two workers has been injured or if any serious injuries occurred.
5.3 Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
The set-up of a wastewater treatment plant has a very significant impact on the physical landscape, environmental and also on social issues. It entails both positives and negatives and thus, to ensure proper planning and forecast of these issues, an Environmental Impact Assessment is usually undertaken prior to the establishment of a plant.
It evaluates the expected effects on the natural environment, human health, social and on property. As a matter of fact, the study requires a multi-disciplinary approach which is most capable of generating the most precise data enabling sound decision making. It is also an integral part of sustainable development. As a matter of fact, Mauritius originally adopted formal procedures for EIA in June 2013 after the subsequent amendment of the Environmental Protection Act (EPA) 1991. Moreover, a new Environment Protection Act has been brought about as from 5 September 2002 to lay further emphasis and to improve the instutional and legal framework for the protection of the environmental assets of Mauritius and to cater for sustainable development. The recent act allows for greater transparency and also depicts the contents of the EIA among others (Ministry of Environment & Sustainable Development, n.d.)

6 Recommendations In order to reduce the risks of encountering hazards at the treatment plant and hence increase safety of the personnel, the following measures may be undertaken: ' A risk assessment of all the activities occurring at the plant could be carried out so as to develop strategies accordingly, thereby minimising the risks.
' The wastewater treatment plant could be upgraded such that the working space is increased. In this context, it is necessary to first obtain sufficient funds to carry out the construction works.
' The workers at a treatment plant are required to carry out repetitive tasks. Coupled with this, the use of certain equipment entail bad working postures which can potentially jeopardize the health of the workers. As such, a solution to this problem could be the construction of new ergonomic treatment plants.
' The authorities should disseminate knowledge and appropriate information to the personnel so that the latter can adopt safe working practices pertaining to the operation, control and monitoring of the system during each and every stage involved in the treatment process.
' Rules and regulations, pertaining to safe practices, should be set up. Also, competent people should be employed and assigned the task of reinforcing these rules and regulations.
' Frequent maintenance and repair of the machinery utilised at the treatment plant could be carried out. This would deter serious accidents from occurring or at least reduce their incidence. For example, it must be ensured that the guard rails are well secured to their bases.
' Innovative technologies should be employed during the treatment of wastewaters. For instance, the use of technology to ensure adequate ventilation in the confined spaces would eliminate the health problems linked to oxygen deprivation.
' Sufficient lighting should be provided while the personnel are at work. This would serve as an effective tool to avoid any mishaps such as walking over water puddles.
7 Conclusion
The purpose of wastewater treatment plant is to treat wastewater to remove numerous pollutants and make the water appropriate to be discharged to the environment. The sources of wastewater can be:
' Domestic or municipal
' Industrial
' Infiltration and inflow
' Storm water.
The treated water coming out from the wastewater treatment plant is called the effluent. Thus, the harmful effects that these substances could have caused to the environment are minimised. However, it is obvious that in wastewater treatment plants, risks and hazards are involved. From this assignment, we were able to have a better understanding of the risks and hazards that the workers are exposed to in the wastewater treatment plant. As such, it has been seen that it is important to inculcate a culture of occupational health and safety among the workers. In addition, a number of Health and Safety laws and measures have been adopted in many countries and also Mauritius by the Ministry of Environment and Sustainable Development so as to minimise unfortunate events in wastewater treatment plants.

Source: Essay UK - http://www.essay.uk.com/free-essays/environmental-studies/waste-water.php

Not what you're looking for?

If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Environmental Studies essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Environmental Studies work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.

Linda Senior Lecturer in Economics, Essay UK Researcher Team.

Similar Documents

Waste Water Treatment in India

...Opportunities and Challenges in Waste Water Treatment Market in India India's economy is the eleventh largest in the world by nominal GDP and the fourth largest by purchasing power parity (PPP). Following strong economic reforms from the socialist inspired economy of a post-independence Indian nation, the country began to develop a fastpaced economic growth, as free market principles were initiated in 1990 for international competition and foreign investment. The environment market in India is one that is developing rapidly. Environment-consciousness is gaining ascendancy thereby enhancing demand for hazardous waste management facilities. The ministry of environment and forests has identified 18 highly polluting industry sectors but the most sophisticated technology will have to be imported. There are good prospects for joint-ventures between Indian and foreign companies in this field. In a country famed for its superstitious beliefs and practices, there was no opposition - rather, there was a public welcome - to a clean-up of the Ganges which is considered a Holy River among the majority Hindus. The fact that society acknowledged that their Holy River could be polluted points to a growing understanding of environmental issues in India. And this is good news for foreign and domestic environment-related businesses. In addition to this, there are several products that India needs to import, some of which are storage containers made of, or lined with, waste-handling category......

Words: 956 - Pages: 4

Waste Management

...Introduction Solid waste management is a polite term for garbage management. As long as humans have been living in settled communities, solid waste, or garbage, has been an issue, and modern societies generate far more solid waste than early humans ever did. Daily life in industrialized nations can generate several pounds of solid waste per consumer, not only directly in the home, but indirectly in factories that manufacture goods purchased by consumers. Solid waste management is a system for handling all of this garbage; municipal waste collection is solid waste management, as are recycling programs, dumps, and incinerators. To the great benefit of archeology, early solid waste management consisted of digging pits and throwing garbage into them. This created a record of the kinds of lives that people lived, showing things like what people ate, the materials used to make eating utensils, and other interesting glimpses into historic daily life. When human cities began to be more concentrated, however, solid waste management became a serious issue. Houses that did not have room to bury their garbage would throw it into the streets, making a stroll to the corner store an unpleasant prospect. In response, many cities started to set up municipal garbage collection, in the form of rag and bone men who would buy useful garbage from people and recycle it, or waste collection teams which would dispose of unusable garbage. Waste Management Waste management is the collection,......

Words: 2734 - Pages: 11

Waste Management

...Master Plan and Preparation of DPR for Solid Waste Management Plan for Bhopal city Submitted to: Bhopal Municipal Corporation (BMC) Prepared by: SENES Consultants India Pvt. Ltd. March 2012 Detailed Project Report – Review/Updating Master Plan & Preparation of DPR for SWM Plan for Bhopal city Table of Contents 1.0 1.1 1.2 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 3.0 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 INTRODUCTION .........................................................................................................1 Objectives of Study........................................................................................................ 1 Scope of Work ............................................................................................................... 2 DESCRIPTION OF STUDY AREA .............................................................................3 Demographic Features ................................................................................................... 6 Population Projections ................................................................................................... 6 Economy ........................................................................................................................ 7 Land use ......................................................................................................................... 7 ASSESSMENT OF EXISTING SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM ..........8 Sources of Waste Generation......

Words: 40268 - Pages: 162

Waste Management

...A.2 Case Waste Management Synopsis In February 1998 Waste Management announced that it was restating its financial statements for 1993 through 1996. In its restatement, Waste Management said that it had materially overstated its reported pretax earnings by $1.43 billion. After the announcement, the company’s stock dropped by more than 33 percent, and shareholders lost over $6 billion. The SEC brought charges against the company’s founder, Dean Buntrock, and five other former top officers. The charges alleged that management had made repeated changes to depreciation-related estimates to reduce expenses and had employed several improper accounting practices related to capitalization policies, also designed to reduce expenses.1 In its final judgment, the SEC permanently barred Buntrock and three other executives from acting as officers or directors of public companies and required payment from them of $30.8 million in penalties.2 History In 1956 Dean Buntrock took over Ace Scavenger, a garbage collector owned by his father-in-law, who had recently died. After merging Ace with a number of other waste companies, Buntrock founded Waste Management in 1968.3 Under Buntrock’s reign as its CEO, the company went public in 1971 and then expanded during the 1970s and 1980s through several acquisitions of local waste hauling companies and landfill operators. At one point the company was performing close to 200 acquisitions a year.4 From 1971 to 1991 the company enjoyed 36 percent...

Words: 5975 - Pages: 24

Waste Management

...the manner in which you dispose waste? For individuals, Hong Kong people have many wasteful habits. Plastic bags, expanded-polystyrene lunchboxes and over-packaged products are commonly used. A recycling programme that provides recycling bins has also been running in schools since 2000 to enhance students' understanding of the importance of conserving resources and separating waste. The increase in the volume of recyclables collected over the years proves the success of the programme in turning students' awareness into action. Overall speaking, Hong Kong has an imminent waste problem. At present, we rely solely on our landfills to dispose of our waste. 40% of our waste are for recycling. We must address the waste problem in a holistic manner. This Policy Framework sets out a comprehensive strategy consisting of a series of tried and proven policy tools and measures to tackle our waste problem head on and achieve the following targets: |Target 1: |To reduce the amount of municipal solid waste (MSW) generated in Hong Kong by 1% per annum up to the year 2014. | |Target 2: |To increase the overall recovery rate of MSW to 45% by 2009 and 50% by 2014. | |Target 3: |To reduce the total MSW disposed of in landfills to less than 25% by 2014. | Tackling the Problem at Source Waste avoidance and minimization......

Words: 3035 - Pages: 13

Waste Management

...ISWA – The International Solid Waste Association Introduction and Perspectives on Integrated Waste Management, Recycling and Recovery of Energy from Waste Dr. Helmut Stadler Vice-President of ISWA International stadler.helmut@utanet.at www.iswa.org Table of Content l l l Introduction of ISWA International and ISWA Austria Problems and Challenges Perspectives on Solutions Sources: Franz Neubacher, David Newman, and others ISWA‘s Mission ISWA – the International Solid Waste Association – is a global, independent and non-profit making association, working in the public interest to fulfil its declared mission: “To Promote and Develop Sustainable and Professional Waste Management Worldwide“ ISWA achieves its mission through: Promoting resource efficiency through sustainable production and consumption Support to developing and emerging economies Advancement of waste management through education and training Promoting appropriate and best available technologies and practices Professionalism through its program on professional qualifications. More than 1,400 Members in More than 90 Countries WWW.ISWA.ORG ISWA Membership Benefits ISWA members have access to a variety of benefits as for instance access to: • Waste Management & Research • Waste Management World • ISWA Newsletter • ISWA Working Groups • ISWA's Job Exchange Platform • Large International Network • Discount on Registration Fees • Member Discount Program ISWA Membership......

Words: 1409 - Pages: 6

Waste Management

...Waste management is the collection, transport, processing, recycling or disposal, and monitoring of waste materials. The term usually relates to materials produced by human activity, and is generally undertaken to reduce their effect on health, the environment or aesthetics. Waste management is also carried out to recover resources from it. Waste management can involve solid,liquid, gaseous or radioactive substances, with different methods and fields of expertise for each. Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and rural areas, and for residential and industrial producers. Management for non-hazardous wasteresidential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the responsibility of local government authorities, while management for non-hazardous commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator. ------------------------------------------------- Education and awareness Education and awareness in the area of waste and waste management is increasingly important from a global perspective of resource management. The Talloires Declaration is a declaration for sustainability concerned about the unprecedented scale and speed of environmental pollution and degradation, and the depletion of natural resources. Local, regional, and global air pollution; accumulation and distribution of toxic wastes; destruction and depletion of forests, soil, and water; depletion of the ozone layer and emission of......

Words: 250 - Pages: 1

Waste Management

...The Effects and Innovations with Waste Management By: Alec Johnston Title In the recent century ideas on dealing with waste management and the ability to sustain this process has been researched in various ways. Waste management has served as a cancer to the Earths atmosphere in previous decades as well as today. The cause to develop sustainable practices is ongoing. There are many ways that the disposal of waste can affect society and pollute the air. The findings of various scientist and the greatest innovators of the world display ideas and facts behind dealing with waste management in a habitable yet sustainable way. The title should be informative. It should encapsulate the content of your paper in a clear and concise manner. By reading your title, other researchers should be able to tell immediately whether the paper will be of interest to their own scientific research. Most research journals have length limitations for titles. Introduction The introduction should contain enough information to allow the reader to understand and interpret the importance of your research. It should place your research in the context of what is known in that field. You should start by briefly reviewing what is generally known about your topic. Don’t give away your conclusions, but inform your reader about your general topic. Concepts and definitions that may be new to the reader should be presented and defined in the introduction. Give enough background information so that your...

Words: 1069 - Pages: 5

Waste Management

...Rationale of the Project Improper waste disposal has been a very big issue to most places around the world. Through this, it can create environmental problems such as soil contamination and pollution. Hazardous chemicals that get into the soil can harm plants when they take up the contamination through their roots. If humans eat plants and animals that have been in contact with such polluted soils, there can be a negative effect impact on their health. Now with the pollution, bad waste management practices can result to land and air pollution and can cause respiratory problems and other adverse health effects as contaminants are absorbed from the lungs into other parts of the body. On the root of it all, improper waste management can also cause health problems. Humans are not the only one affected by improper waste disposal but animals too. Garbage dumping and discharging raw or untreated sewage can threaten marine life and animals who come in contact with the water. Waste products such as plastics and metals present an immediate danger to animals, in particular, marine life. They might mistake these waste products for food and may choke or get poisoned by it. Through this, the area can suffocate and contaminate sea bottom habitats such as coral and fish reducing their numbers. The purpose and objective of the study is to help spread the awareness of the effects of improper waste disposal and teach them different methods of solid waste management. After this, it is......

Words: 668 - Pages: 3

Waste Management

...Waste Waste can be loosely defined as any material that is considered to be of no further use to the owner and is, hence, discarded. However, most discarded waste can be reused or recycled, one of the principles of most waste management philosophies. What may be of no further use to one person and regarded as waste to be dumped, may be of use to the next person, and is the basis of the rag picking trade, the sifting through of refuse at landfills for recovery and resale, a very fundamental historical waste management practice still functioning in many countries, often conducted on a highly organised commercial basis. Waste is generated universally and is a direct consequence of all human activities. Wastes are generally classified into solid, liquid and gaseous. Gaseous waste is normally vented to the atmosphere, either with or without treatment depending on composition and the specific regulations of the country involved. Liquid wastes are commonly discharged into sewers or rivers, which in many countries is subject to legislation governing treatment before discharge. In many parts of the world such legislation either does not exist or is not sufficiently implemented, and liquid wastes are discharged into water bodies or allowed to infiltrate into the ground. Indiscriminant disposal of liquid wastes pose a major pollution threat to both surface and groundwater. Solid wastes are mainly disposed of to landfill, because landfill is the simplest, cheapest......

Words: 426 - Pages: 2

Waste Water Management

...Waste Water Management Introduction: Water is crucial for all aspects of life, the defining feature of our planet. Ninety seven and a half per cent of all water is found in the oceans, of the remaining freshwater only one percent is accessible for extraction and use. Functioning and healthy aquatic ecosystems provide us with a dazzling array of benefits – food, medicines, recreational amenity, shoreline protection, processing our waste, and sequestering carbon. At the beginning of the 21st century, the world faces a water crisis, both of quantity and quality, caused by continuous population growth, industrialization, food production practices, increased living standards and poor water use strategies. Wastewater management or the lack of, has a direct impact on the biological diversity of aquatic ecosystems, disrupting the fundamental integrity of our life support systems, on which a wide range of sectors from urban development to food production and industry depend. It is essential that wastewater management is considered as part of integrated, ecosystem-based management that operates across sectors and borders, freshwater and marine. What is Waste water: Wastewater, also written as waste water, is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. It comprises liquid waste discharged by domestic residences, commercial properties, industry, and/or agriculture and can encompass a wide range of potential contaminants and concentrations.......

Words: 302 - Pages: 2

Waste Water Management

...industries. However, hotels contribute to negative environmental impacts through energy and water usage, importing non-durable goods, as well as emitting a large amount of carbon dioxide. Hotel water consumption for laundry, showers, toilets, dishwashers, swimming pools, spas, golf course irrigation, as well as for other amenities, can consume up to 1million m3 of water per year (Gössling, 2013). Global warming and water scarcity are both acknowledged around the world as serious problems, and with the demand for water expected to exceed supply by 40% by 2030, hotels must implement water waste management techniques and policies to help achieve sustainable tourism development (Tuppen, 2013). In 1995, an action plan for businesses in the travel and tourism sector was created by the World Travel & Tourism Council, the World Tourism Organization, and the Earth Council. These three international organizations created Agenda 21 for Travel & Tourism Industry: Towards Environmentally Sustainable Development (Stipanuk, 2015). Since then, many companies in the hospitality and tourism sector have formed their business and environmental policies around the agenda. The agenda outlines areas of priority, such as; waste minimization, energy conservation and management, partnerships for sustainable development, transport, and wastewater management. Agenda 21’s wastewater management objective is “to minimize waste water outputs in order to protect the aquatic environment, to safeguard flora......

Words: 2406 - Pages: 10

Waste Management

...DEVELOPING INTEGRATED SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT PLAN TRAINING MANUAL Volume 4: ISWM Plan U N I T E D N AT I O N S E N V I R O N M E N T P R O G R A M M E Copyright © United Nations Environment Programme, 2009 This publication may be reproduced in whole or in part and in any form for educational or non-profit purposes without special permission from the copyright holder, provided acknowledgement of the source is made. UNEP would appreciate receiving a copy of any publication that uses this publication as a source. No use of this publication may be made for resale or for any other commercial purpose whatsoever without prior permission in writing from the United Nations Environment Programme. Disclaimer The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the United Nations Environment Programme concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Moreover, the views expressed do not necessarily represent the decision or the stated policy of the United Nations Environment Programme, nor does citing of trade names or commercial processes constitute endorsement. Developing Integrated Solid Waste Management Plan Training Manual Volume 4 ISWM Plan Compiled by United Nations Environmental Programme Division of Technology, Industry and Economics International......

Words: 18353 - Pages: 74

Waste Water Management

...Water Quality; Wastewater Management Water Treatment Charles E. Best, Jr TUI University BHE 314 / Module 3 Case December 22, 2010 Professor Dr. Nathaniel Ofoe With the United States growing and cities becoming larger and larger day by day, communities have been battling water shortages all throughout the country. For the past fifty or so years reclaimed water has been used all over the world. Within the course of this case paper I will attempt to compare and contrast the secondary water treatment methods to that of the tertiary water treatment methods. Wastewater treatment is classified as primary, secondary, and tertiary treatment; this is the process of how wastewater actually becomes recycled water. The primary treatment process is the initial stage or in other words the beginning of how organic and inorganic solids are removed via sedimentation and flotation. During this initial stage approximately 40-60% of suspended solids and raw sewage are collected in sedimentation tanks and 25-35% of the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is removed from the waste stream. During the secondary treatment the out flowing from the primary treatment process contains residual organic and inorganic material. Secondary treatment systems will remove between 80-95% of suspended solids and (BOD) through two methods known as attached growth and suspended growth. Finally we are at the tertiary treatment process also known as the polishing process where......

Words: 769 - Pages: 4

Waste Water Management

...Introduction: Water is crucial for all aspects of life, the defining feature of our planet. Ninety seven and a half per cent of all water is found in the oceans, of the remaining freshwater only one percent is accessible for extraction and use. Functioning and healthy aquatic ecosystems provide us with a dazzling array of benefits – food, medicines, recreational amenity, shoreline protection, processing our waste, and sequestering carbon. At the beginning of the 21st century, the world faces a water crisis, both of quantity and quality, caused by continuous population growth, industrialization, food production practices, increased living standards and poor water use strategies. Wastewater management or the lack of, has a direct impact on the biological diversity of aquatic ecosystems, disrupting the fundamental integrity of our life support systems, on which a wide range of sectors from urban development to food production and industry depend. It is essential that wastewater management is considered as part of integrated, ecosystem-based management that operates across sectors and borders, freshwater and marine. What is Waste water: Wastewater, also written as waste water, is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. It comprises liquid waste discharged by domestic residences, commercial properties, industry, and/or agriculture and can encompass a wide range of potential contaminants and concentrations. In the most common usage, it......

Words: 1762 - Pages: 8

0 thoughts on “Water And Wastewater Management Essay Free”


Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *