Laction En Justice Des Associations Dissertation Outline

Submission Checklist

  1. Start the process after you have defended and made any final edits to your thesis or dissertation
  2. Check the formatting guidelines to make sure your pages are numbered correctly and are arranged in the proper order
  3. Contact the ETD office if you have any questions
  4. Save your ETD as a PDF/a file
  5. Login to the submission system using your JHED ID
  6. Enter the required descriptive fields
  7. Read and agree to the submission agreement
  8. Upload your PDF/A
  9. Go to the fee payment site and pay your $60.00 fee
  10. If you get an email asking for changes, follow the link and resubmit your corrected ETD
  11. Forward a copy of your approval email to your appropriate graduate office, if required

General Formatting

Following these formatting guidelines while preparing your ETD will ensure that you have an easily readable, professional-looking work. In addition, these requirements will enable you to print copies for yourself, your advisor, or family members, if you so choose.

Order and Content

Front Matter

  • Title page
  • Abstract
  • Preface, including acknowledgments
  • Table of Contents, with titles and page references
  • List of Tables, with titles and page references
  • List of Figures, with titles and page references
  • List of Plates, with titles and page references


  • Introduction
  • Main body, with the larger divisions and more important minor divisions indicated by suitable, consistent headings


  • Appendices
  • Bibliography
  • Curriculum Vitae

Spacing and Type

  • The body of the text and abstract must be double-spaced except for footnotes or long quotations.
  • Fonts such as Times Roman, Bookman, New Century Schoolbook, Garamond, Palatine, and Courier are acceptable and commonly found on most computers.
  • The same type must be used throughout the body of the text.
  • The font size must be 10 point or larger and footnotes must be two sizes smaller than the text but no smaller than eight (8) points.
  • Chapter, section, or other headings should be of a consistent font and size throughout the ETD, as should labels for illustrations, charts, and figures.


  • The ETD must have a margin of 1½ inches on the left side of the page if you are planning to print and bind it. Only one inch is required if you are only producing a digital version.
  • The other three (3) sides of the page, top, right side and bottom, must have a one (1) inch margin.
  • This requirement applies to all portions of text (including footnotes/endnotes), as well as to pages containing charts, graphs, tables, photographs, etc. and appendices.
  • When landscaping page orientation for a chart or table, etc. the binding side must maintain the 1½ inch margin. For landscape, that would be at the top of the page.


  • Each page in the manuscript, including all blank pages, must be assigned a number.
  • You must print on each blank page “Intended to be blank.”
  • Each page must be numbered within the margin. All numbers must be centered at the bottom of the page.
  • For the front matter, (abstract, acknowledgments, etc.) use small Roman numerals (ii, iii, iv, etc.). The numbering begins with ii, the title page counts as i, but the number does not appear.
  • For the remainder of the ETD, including text, illustrations, appendices, and bibliography, use Arabic numerals (1, 2, 3, etc.). The numbering begins with one (1) and runs consecutively to the end of the manuscript. Do not use suffixes to the Arabic numerals, such as 12a.
  • If the description of an illustration or table is too long to be placed on the same page, it should be placed on the previous page and numbered accordingly.
  • Pages containing charts, graphs, tables, or photographs must be numbered consecutively with the text.

Title Page

Words chosen for the title should be carefully selected to represent the subject content as accurately as possible. They are frequently used as keywords when the subject is being searched. Appropriate substitutes for Greek letters, symbols, formulas, superscripts, and subscripts must be used, as these may not be included in the title of the dissertation/thesis.

The entire title page must be centered within the left and right margins. The title itself must be written in all capital letters, single or double-spaced. The page should adhere to the format on the sample provided (link on the bottom of this page).

  • Title: Approximately 1 ½ inches from top of page
  • Author: Drop down approximately 1 inch below the title and type the word “by.” On the next line below “by” (single spaced) type your name, see example
  • Statement: If writing a dissertation, write the following in two lines as shown here, single spaced, approximately 1 ½ inches below your name:“A dissertation submitted to Johns Hopkins University in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy”
  • If writing a masters thesis, write the following in two lines as shown here, single spaced, approximately 1 ½ inches below your name: “A thesis submitted to Johns Hopkins University in conformity with the requirements for the degree of Master of… (e.g. Fine Arts, Science etc.)
  • Location of JHU: Approximately ½ inch below the statement, type the following: Baltimore, Maryland
  • Submission date: on the next line below the location (single spaced) enter the month and year you submit your thesis to the ETD Submission Tool.
  • Notice of Copyright: If you choose to type the notice of copyright it will be approximately 1 to 2 inches from the bottom of the page, it will include the copyright symbol, the year you completed the thesis and your name on the first line. The second line (single spaced) will have the statement “All Rights Reserved.”
  • See an example of a properly formatted title page in our dissertation repository.


Each dissertation or thesis must contain an abstract immediately following the title page. It should present a succinct account of the work. The abstract should contain:

  1. a statement of the problem or theory
  2. procedure or methods
  3. results
  4. conclusions

The abstract must be double-spaced and should not be more than 350 words. The abstract must provide the name of the readers/advisors at the bottom and conform to all requirements for the printing of the dissertation. All abstracts must be in English, even if permission has been granted for a dissertation to be written in a language other than English.

Footnotes & Endnotes

The arrangement of footnotes or endnotes should conform to the established practice in a given field. Students may ascertain what this practice is from the department or use a standard manual of style such as A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations, or the MLA Style Manual. Footnotes must be produced in a font size two point sizes smaller than the text.

Acknowledgments & Curriculum Vitae

If the student desires to make acknowledgments, these should be printed on a separate page. The final page of the dissertation should contain a brief biographical sketch. This “scholarly life” or “curriculum vitae” should record the date and location of the author’s birth and the salient facts of his or her academic training and experience in teaching and research.

Sample Title Page

Here is an example of a dissertation with a properly formatted title page. Note that the copyright statement is optional.

PDF/A Creation

PDF/A is an ISO-standardized version of the Portable Document Format (PDF) specialized for the digital preservation of electronic documents. You need to save your dissertation as a PDF/A file and upload it as your official submission. For more information, see the Wikpedia article on the format. Please note that while you can save a Word for Windows document as a PDF/a (see below), you cannot do so directly from Word for Mac. If you are a Mac user, you probably want to use the Adobe Acrobat Pro method.

Some things to keep in mind about PDF/A are:

  • you cannot include audio and video content; still images are fine
  • you cannot include JavaScript or executable files
  • fonts must be embedded

If you need to include audio, video, or other files, you can submit them as supplementary files. Contact us at for more help with PDF/A or supplementary files.

Students may use Adobe Acrobat Pro to convert regular PDF files into PDF/A files using its “Preflight” function on the edit menu. Simply choose “Convert to PDF/A-1b”. This program is available to all Hopkins students in the Computing Lab at Krieger Hall 160.

To create a PDF/a from Word for Windows:

  • click “file” then “save as PDF”
  • make sure file type is “pdf files”
  • click on Options and a box with “PDF Options” will open
  • check the “Create PDF/A” box, then click “OK” and “Save”.

To create a PDF/A from LaTeX:

  • follow the instructions for using a LaTeX template
  • the Library has no LaTeX experience, so use this method at your own risk!

During the last several decades Animal Studies has emerged as a newly central focus of scholarship in disciplines throughout the humanities and social sciences.   "The Animal turn" in academic research has expanded the range of possible research topics in disciplines from art history, cultural studies, and philosophy to history, sociology, and anthropology, while suggesting new relationships between scholars and their subjects, and new understandings of the role of animals in the past and at present. At the same time, Animal Studies has remained at the border of established disciplines, a location that is the source of much of its appeal and power.

Like many interdisciplinary research areas, Animal Studies brings divergent, complementary, and mutually enriching approaches to bear on a common thematic focus.  Throughout the social sciences and the humanities, scholars now consider animals (their functions, and even their experiences) as subjects in a sense previously reserved for humans.  Even in fields where animal topics have been routine, such as agricultural history, the farmyard creatures are now less likely to be abstracted through quantification, and more likely to appear as individual creatures, or at least groups of individual creatures. And as has been the case with some other emergent or recently emerged areas of scholarly investigation, academic interest resonates with issues in the news. As organized labor, civil rights, decolonization, and women's liberation inspired sympathetic scholars, so have, in their turn, the advocates of hunted whales, poached tigers, abandoned dogs, and overcrowded pigs.   Panda diplomacy, the anti-vivisection movement, pest control: all these invest animals with crucial socio-political meaning. A focus on human relationships with other animals illuminates the study of ancient cultures as well as modern ones, western as well as non-western.  As Animal Studies has expanded the range of topics available to scholars, it has also opened new possibilities of connection between the social sciences and humanities, and the life sciences.  We will engage a wide range of research methods including the analysis of representation and discourse, ethnography and interviews, archival and data analysis.

Students from varied disciplines are encouraged to apply, including history, history of science, visual and media studies, literary and cultural studies, sociology, religion, law, philosophy, and anthropology.  Such interdisciplinary exposure will produce stimulating exchanges, and enable students to explain their proposed work to a general academic audience. Through conferences and group discussions, students will develop in both workshops their individual research projects, and will also participate in field-building activities, focusing on such topics as "making" animals (from breeding to biotech), animal-human boundaries, representing and displaying, conservation and extinction, and animals as symbols.

  • Noah Cincinnati

    Johns Hopkins University, History

    "The White Man's Other Burden: Zoos, Empire, and American Wildlife Conservation, 1889-1924."

    The Bronx and National Zoos, established at the end of the nineteenth century, were critical spaces where Americans encountered wildlife from across the continent and globe. Only recently have animals and zoos begun to receive substantial historical attention. Scholars have explored how American zoos were part of city beautification movements and how the zoos reflected broader attempts to recreate more perfect forms of nature. While useful, historians have been less willing to examine how animals on display in American zoological parks were part of a larger imperial world. American zoos were an intricate part of the practical and ideological machinery of American empire and Progressive-era conservation. This project focuses mostly on the intentions of zoo officials and zoological societies, while also considering how the public participated in the experience of animal exhibition. In my dissertation, I plan to use archival material on the Bronx and National Zoos, from 1889 to 1924, as a lens to uncover a hidden dimension of animal exhibition and conservation—one rooted in imperialism and nativism. In doing so, it is my hope to blend American cultural, imperial, and environmental history into a single narrative for students and scholars alike.

  • Colter Ellis

    University of Colorado at Boulder, Sociology

    Animals, Inequality, and the Environment

    Today’s agricultural practices are more abusive of animals than those in use at any other time in human history. Scholars of animal studies clearly note the connection between animal exploitation and the oppression of human groups, such as women and minorities. This connection constitutes the theoretical foundation for my proposed dissertation topic. Building on data collected through my course work and in collaboration with faculty, my proposed dissertation topic will use ethnography to explore animal-human relationships at four stages in the beef production chain. The first stage is 4H, an agriculturally based youth program that provides early socialization into the field of animal agriculture. The second stage will investigate cow/calf operations, often understood as “cattle ranches.” These operations range between 50 to 1000 cattle and are concerned with breading and early rearing of caves. The third stage in the beef production chain is the feedlot. Here, animals are fed an unnatural diet that causes extreme weight gain. Once of adequate size, animals enter stage four, the slaughterhouse. Each stage has a considerable environmental impact. My work will provide a critical analysis of the beef industry and empirically investigate the interrelationship among animal exploitation, racial and gender oppression, and environmental degradation.

  • Radhika Govindrajan

    Yale University, Anthropology

    Beautiful Beasts and Beastly Beauty: Human-Animal Relations in the Western Himalayas

    From pastoralism to hunting, domestication to wildlife conservation, human-animal relations have been an integral part of the historical development of relations between state, society, and nature in India’s western Himalayan region. My dissertation will analyze the cultural and political processes through which human-animal relations took shape in the context of colonial and postcolonial social and environmental change over the twentieth century. The project will unravel the intricate web of representations, practices and experiences that not only mediated these everyday relations, but also constituted the very categories of ‘human’ and ‘animal’ in India. I shall explore three specific themes. Firstly, I wish to examine how animal symbolism in folklore, religious beliefs, and kinship terminology shaped historical patterns of human-animal interactions. Secondly, I shall analyze how changing discourses and practices of hunting and wildlife conservation have transformed not only the ways in which people relate to non-human animals but also their access to animal resources. Thirdly, I will investigate how demographic changes influenced by commercial agriculture, state-led economic development, and the expansion of agrarian frontiers in colonial and postcolonial India have simultaneously created new lines of conflict between humans and animals as well as novel means for representing and managing them.

  • Anjali Clare Gupta

    University of California, Berkeley, Environmental Science, Policy and Management

    The Elephant Question: an ethnography of environmental imaginaries in Chobe Enclave Community Trust, Botswana

    My dissertation research will use a case study of environmental imaginaries in rural Botswana to explain how local visions of the environment and of human-wildlife relations play a role in the local politics of natural resource management. In Botswana, as in most parts of the world that still support populations of charismatic wildlife species, the introduction of Western neoliberal models of wildlife management has heightened struggles over control, access, ownership and benefits from these wild animals. Despite the name “community-based natural resource management” (CBNRM), these programs have been criticized for failing to incorporate local conceptions of appropriate environmental practice into their design. I propose to study the different ways community members in CBNRM villages in rural Botswana engage with wildlife—including CBNRM schemes’ influence on these interactions—and how these engagements shape and are shaped by local imaginaries for wildlife. By making visible the complexities of these material and metaphorical relationships, my research will contribute to a set of interdisciplinary bodies of literature, including recent political ecology, that aim to understand how nature politics is both materially and discursively constituted. My findings will also inform critical examinations of how CBNRM policies in Botswana might begin to take local human-wildlife relations into account. This ethnographic research will take place within the Chobe Enclave Community Trust, Botswana’s first CBNRM program.

  • Karen Linnell Hibbard-Rode Mager

    University of Alaska, Biology and Wildlife

    Identity and History of the Teshekpuk Lake Caribou Herd: Perspectives from Oral History and Landscape Genetics

    Caribou are an important subsistence resource, a key component of Arctic terrestrial ecosystems, and an increasingly powerful symbol of wildness in the debate over oil and gas development in the Arctic. My research will investigate the identity and history of caribou herds on the North Slope of Alaska, using methods from oral history and landscape genetics. Interviews with caribou hunters and reindeer herders, and genetic analysis of samples from caribou, will be analyzed. Through a parallel examination of scientific- and local traditional- knowledge of caribou identity, I will illuminate differences in the underlying assumptions on which knowledge is based and, potentially, how these two systems may inform one another. Bringing several sources of information to bear on this topic may allow me to construct a more complete knowledge of caribou history and identity than each source alone could produce. Determining the historical changes in herds and the genetic relationship between them may also provide insight into their capacity to adapt, or vulnerability, to oil and gas development in the region.

  • Casey R. Riffel

    University of Southern California, Critical Studies

    The Visual Rhetoric of Animality: Animating Animals from Eadweard Muybridge to Jim Trainor

    With his invention of the zoopraxiscope and subsequent photographic experiments, which first froze animal motion by executing a technological spectacle in order to decompose movement, Eadweard Muybridge ushered the animal into the era of its animation. Linking the animated animal to the urge to imbue images with movement, I pair animation’s challenge to the ontology of the cinematic image with the animal’s challenge to conceptions of humanity. Thus my dissertation will pursue three interrelated goals: tracing the history of animal imagery in animating practices; illuminating a medium-specific approach to the possibilities of animation; and explicating the entrapment of the animal image in a matrix of media culture anthropomorphism. Tracing diverse themes—including monstrosity, propaganda, iconicity, violence, drawing-from-life, technological spectacle, and racialized and sexualized performance—through diverse figures—from Muybridge to Winsor McCay to Walt Disney to Ladislas Starevich to Ralph Bakshi to Jim Trainor—I will explain animation’s pervasive engagement with animal imagery in terms of its unique capacity for the mobilization of a visual rhetoric of animality. The animal’s centrality to animation, and vice versa, is from this perspective crucial, their shared etymological root highlighting their intertwined role in cinema’s exploration of movement and form as fundamental ontological categories.

  • Aaron Shackelford

    University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, English & Comparative Literature

    "I Think I Could Turn and Live Awhile With the Animals": The Writer's Struggle with Animals in America, 1850-1865

    By the middle of the nineteenth century, American authors confronted a growing uncertainty regarding the status of animals. Scientific research asked how closely related animals are to humans, whether animals feel pain or use language. Simultaneous to these investigations was the growth of racially charged taxonomies that sought to split humanity itself into hierarchical categories, further blurring distinctions between what it means to be human or animal. As a result, figurations of animals in literary texts began to raise important questions of representation, consciousness, and ethics, about the very meaning of what it means to identify oneself as human and something else as animal. This project, then, seeks to map out the ways this uncertain status of the animal manifests itself in the literature of antebellum America. I want to inquire into the ways in which writers struggle to do justice to these emergent concepts. The literary use of animals increasingly demanded a different approach to writing, and antebellum America offers a fascinating if at times confusing and contradictory time and place to study the literary tools writers use to make these discoveries and adjustments.

  • Ryan Noah Shapiro

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, History, Anthropology, and Science, Technology, and Society

    Bodies at War: The Fight over Animal and Human Experimentation in Wartime America: 1916-1966

    From the sinking of the Lusitania to the launch of Sputnik II, American antivivisectionists and research advocates believed themselves at war with twin enemies; one abroad and another at home. Through war and peace, antivivisectionists and defenders of research alike consistently depicted themselves as partisans in a Manichean struggle over experimentation and America’s very survival. Each struggled for ownership of the rhetoric of national security in bids to metonymically and literally link their domestic opponents with foreign threats from the Kaiser to Stalin. This casting of the debate in martial terms significantly impacted the course of the conflict as well as the practice of medical research. My project seeks to explore this nexus of war and animal experimentation in the vivisection controversy in the United States from the First World War through the early Cold War, with particular emphasis on the roles played by gender, species, and nation in the martial renderings of the combatants. How were allegiance, masculinity, and menace constructed out of the beliefs and bodies of the men, women, and animals involved? How did the vivisection conflict manifest new visions of war and order in the laboratory and the home?

  • Analia Villagra

    City University of New York Graduate Center, Anthropology

    Taxonomies of Nature: categories for an interspecies environmentalism

    Knowledge requires categories; humans necessarily classify the world in order to make sense of it. Drawing from the anthropology of science, kinship studies, and cultural primatology, my dissertation research will focus on the ways that different groups of people associated with the conservation of the Golden Lion Tamarin understand and categorize their place within the natural world, what I have called their “taxonomy of nature”. The Golden Lion Tamarin is a small monkey found only in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It is variously viewed as the flagship species for the preservation of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest by conservationists and eco-tourists, a prestigious landmark for local landowners, and a potential rival by members of the Landless Workers Movement in need of property to farm. I intend to more thoroughly investigate the categories and taxonomies of nature that emerge among these diverse groups of people. On a biological reserve located about three hours outside of the city of Rio de Janeiro the fate of this tiny human cousin opens a larger debate about environmental justice, inter-species kinship, and how the boundaries we construct between “nature” and “culture” dictate the use of the land and the preservation of natural national heritage.

  • Sharon E. Wilcox

    University of Texas at Austin, Geography and the Environment

    Encountering El Tigre: Jaguars and People in the U.S.-Mexico Borderlands

    This project is concerned with jaguars and their conservation along the U.S./Mexico border. Exploring both the physical and symbolic meanings of “borderlands,” this study is not only physically located in a political border region, but is also concerned with the symbolic borderlands constructed between humans and animals. My research takes interest in the interrelationships between animals and peoples in this place, considering issues of agency, power, and access and how they alter and affect the lives of species, both human and feline, on the landscape. Utilizing conceptual debates regarding the “place” of animals from cross-disciplinary readings in the social sciences and humanities, this study offers a re-theorization of animals both within popular and academic conservation discourses. This project will interrogate representations of jaguars in order to locate the animals themselves, illustrating that the jaguar is at once removed from human sociality and yet bound to human social, economic, and political processes. Examining stakeholder participation in jaguar conservation efforts, I will explore the idea of considering and empowering the jaguar as a stakeholder itself. Ultimately, this study will consider the potential of this approach for enhancing the standing of animals themselves, bringing a new dimension of animal ethics to wildlife conservation.

  • Michael Wise

    University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, History

    “Living Like a Wolf”: Predation, Civilization, and Conquest on the Northern Plains, 1869-1924

    From Reconstruction through the 1920s, Anglo-American settlers on the Northern Plains viewed wolves as barometers of civilization’s outer boundaries. The animals’ presence and daily habits—dragging down game and livestock, feasting on bison carcasses, and howling at humanity with ambivalence—struck ire and hatred in the minds of modernizing settlers seeking to “civilize” the wild grasslands of Alberta, Montana, and Wyoming. While human predatory economies of bison hunting and stock growing transformed the plains, wolves harnessed these enterprises to their own ends. Feasting on cattle and skinned bison carrion, wolves ate and mated their way to unprecedented population levels, fueling a booming trade in their pelts—both for sale and for bounty. As wolves’ metabolisms reverberated into the human world and blurred the lines between animal and human production, the Northern Plain’s predators of body and mind preyed on civilization and its insecure discourses of race, gender, and class. Incapable of controlling the region’s animal ecology, these Americans and Canadians imagined wolves as symbols of their human vulnerability. By placing wolves at the center of my historical project, I plan to explore the relationships between colonialism, predation, conservation, and eugenics that branded the Northern Plain’s transnational and human-animal history.

  • Rebecca J. Woods

    Massachusetts Institute of Technology, History, Anthropology, and Science, Technology, and Society

    Breeding Environments: Livestock and Location in the Modern Anglophone World

    “Breeding Environments” explores the reciprocal relationships between livestock and the environments they live in and shape over the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Focusing on British imperial and post-imperial expansion into North America, New Zealand, and Australia, this project examines the role of livestock breeding in the construction of climatic labels such as “temperate,” and how resulting understandings of climate and environment shaped nineteenth-century theories of heredity both before and after the acceptance of Darwinian evolution. “Breeding Environments” traces the interplay between livestock and place into the late twentieth century to explore rare breeds conservancy, an international movement that seeks to preserve, reestablish, and at times even recreate “historic” breeds of livestock. In this context, rare or heritage breeds—those whose numbers have declined due to the changing imperatives of the meat industry and revolutions in transportation—become, through their emblematic associations with particular times and places, a way to redeem an environment, or to preserve or recreate a past landscape.

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